Illegal Gold Trade And Its Implications for Enviroment And Public

Illegal gold trade is a growing problem in the global economy, and it has significant implications for both the environment and the public. This illicit trade involves the illegal mining, smuggling, and sale of gold, which often leads to serious human rights violations and environmental degradation. A lot of people in Africa, including children are using small-scale methods to extract gold. Although millions of people were earning a living through small-scale production methods the governments of Zambia, Ghana and Tanzania complaint about the gold black market.

The gold trade has been a critical aspect of the global economy for centuries, and the demand for gold continues to rise. However, the growth in demand has also led to an increase in illegal gold trade, which is often done in violation of environmental and labor laws. The illegal trade is particularly rampant in developing and underdeveloped countries, especially in Africa, where weak governance structures and limited regulation of the mining industry lead to the growth of the black market for gold. In these countries, the extraction and sale of illegal gold are often done in secret, making it difficult to monitor and control the trade. It also makes it impossible for the governments to tax this gold production and therefore barrs the governments from benefiting from this market – tax money that otherwise could be spent on the national infrastructure such as roads, railways, school systems, police etc.

One of the major consequences of illegal gold trade is environmental degradation. The illegal gold mines are often located in remote and fragile ecosystems, and the extraction process often involves the use of toxic chemicals and hazardous waste. The chemicals and waste are often dumped into the surrounding environment, contaminating water sources and damaging wildlife habitats.

Additionally, the mines often lack proper waste management systems, which further exacerbates the environmental impact. One example would be the illegal gold mining in Brazil which led to the destruction of the Amazonian rainforest. Brazilian mining lobby even released a statement addressing the country’s foreign ministry to work with other governments to develop policies and strategies with the purpose of combatting the illegal gold trade. The statement made by the President of Ibram Trade Association, Mr Raul Jungmann said: “The trade of illegal gold feeds a criminal alliance in Brazil, which is responsible for part of the devastation we see in the Amazonian rainforest, something the world is watching.” The unregulated gold mining under the former President Jair Bolsonaro has dramatically increased, which in turn led to the destruction of the rainforest and led to the pollution of the rivers. Thus, stopping illegal gold trade is extremely important to protect the environment.

Illegal gold trade also leads to serious human rights violations, including child labor, exploitation, and abuse of workers. The workers in illegal gold mines are often subjected to long hours, dangerous working conditions, and low wages. Moreover, they often have limited access to healthcare, education, and other basic necessities, which further exacerbates their plight.

Children are also often used as cheap labor in illegal gold mines, and they are subjected to hazardous working conditions that put their health and well-being at risk.

To combat illegal gold trade, governments and international organizations need to work together to improve governance and regulation of the mining industry. This involves strengthening environmental and labor laws, increasing enforcement and penalties for those who engage in illegal activities, and improving the monitoring and control of the trade. Additionally, the international community must work to improve transparency in the gold trade, making it easier to track the origin and flow of gold from mine to the customer.

To conclude, illegal gold trade is a growing problem that has serious implications for both the environment and people. It is essential to take action to combat this illicit trade, including improving governance and regulation, increasing enforcement and penalties, and improving transparency in the gold trade. By taking these steps, we can help protect the environment, improve working conditions, and promote sustainable development in the global economy.

Principles of Standardization in International Trade

The best way to define standards is a “system of reference” which would typically be used by the parties in the export-import or transit activities. The standards guarantee the technical specifications related to products, services and organizations, including their quality, usage and rights. However, unless they are cited as a regulation or a directive, their usage is not necessary. These standards usually vary from one country to another, however large international trade organizations such as the WTO or Customs Unions such as the EU tend to generalize these standards, in order to reduce the number of misunderstandings or to resolve dispute regarding the aforementioned trade activities.

There is a number of relevant standardization bodies:

One of them is ISO – International Organization for Standardization. It aims to harmonize the standards on a Global Level. Elaborated in the Global Consensus Framework, it contributes to rationalization of the International Trade Framework.

The ISO has been created in 1947 Over the period of its existence it has published 19,500 international standards recognized in lots of countries and in almost every field of technology and economics, except for the fields of telecommunication and electro-technical engineering which are linked to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and International Electro-Technical Commission (IEC). These standards provide specifications for the products and services as well as firm practices aimed at improving the overall economy.

The ISO consists of national standardizing organizations from more than 160 countries. ISO works together with the European Committee for Standardization. Thus, these standards can be applied both in Europe and in the rest of the globe.

There are different types of Standards:

The Standards allow to define a common set of definitions for international economic actors – Producers, Consumers, Carriers, etc. In addition it allows to clarify and harmonize the practices among parties. These standards are aimed at facilitating global trade, thus allowing for greater amount of operations which would in turn lead to an increase in wealth. Other than that they also make life easier in general. These standards are used as the documents of reference. Essentially it is a consensus accepted by the markets regarding the import- export activities. These standards may concern goods, services or management systems, for example the ISO 90001 concerning the quality management or the ISO 14001 about the Environmental Management.

The Standards shouldn’t be mixed up with the regulations. Regulations are established by the governmental of inter-governmental authorities and are mandatory, standards on the other hand as mentioned above are principles agreed upon by the parties and are not mandatory. Standards allow companies to satisfy the expectations regarding safety and quality of the products and services, by doing so companies may improve their products and services. Standards may support regulations if they are listed as references.

In order to successfully enter a market, you would have to follow all the standards. The companies are trying to make sure that the standards are consistent with their goals and needs. A company may take an interest in standardization in order to forecast what the markets will want in the future and to protect their goods services.

Thus standards contribute to the markets, allow to increase the overall levels of wealth in the world. Companies that comply with the standardization rules are more likely to succeed in the new market.